German, Germany

From Vototo

Version ID# 1581 by 198.51.100.18
Press the "Improve" button to call for a new round of election and submit a challenging revision.
Jump to: navigation, search

Summary

German ( ) is a West Germanic language. It derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A number of words are derived from Latin and Greek, and fewer from French and English. Widely spoken languages which are most similar to German include Luxembourgish, Yiddish, Dutch, the Frisian languages, English and the Scandinavian languages.

Details

When Martin Luther translated the Bible (the New Testament in 1522 and the Old Testament, published in parts and completed in 1534), he based his translation mainly on the bureaucratic standard language used in Saxony (sächsische Kanzleisprache), also known as Meißner-Deutsch (German from the city of Meissen). This language was based on Eastern Upper and Eastern Central German dialects and preserved much of the grammatical system of Middle High German (unlike the spoken German dialects in Central and Upper Germany, which had already at that time begun to lose the genitive case and the preterite tense).

Copies of the Bible featured a long list of glosses for each region that translated words unknown in the region into the regional dialect. Roman Catholics initially rejected Luther's translation and tried to create their own Catholic standard (gemeines Deutsch)—the difference in relation to "Protestant German" was only minor. It was not until the middle of the 18th century that a widely accepted standard was created, thus ending the period of Early New High German.

Until about 1800, standard German was mainly a written language: in urban northern Germany, the local dialects of Low Saxon or Low German were spoken; Standard German, which was markedly different, was often learned as a foreign language with uncertain pronunciation. Northern German pronunciation was considered the standard in prescriptive pronunciation guides; however, the actual pronunciation of Standard German varies from region to region.

Copyright: Attribute—Share Alike

External Links

  • WikipediaThe Goethe Institute

Space reserved for Vototo Advertising Program

Content specific ad placement

Voicing the ONLY opinion that counts

System Design by Penpegraphy Tool+Die — Silicon Valley U.S.A.

Check out the Vototo Advertising Program

(VAP)

Personal tools