Latin, Verbs

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Summary

Latin (; Latin: , ; the noun lingua, "tongue" and "language", and the adjective latinus, latina and latinum in its three genders, "Latin") is an

Details

A regular verb in Latin belongs to one of four main conjugations. A conjugation is "a class of verbs with similar inflected forms." The conjugations are identified by the last letter of the verb's present stem. The present stem can be found by taking the -re (or -ri, in the case of a deponent verb) ending off of the present infinitive. The infi

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nitive of the first conjugation ends in -ā-re or -ā-ri (active and passive respectively); e.g., amāre, "to love," hortārī, "to exhort"; of the second conjugation by -ē-re or -ē-rī; e.g., monēre, "to warn", verērī, "to fear;" of the third conjugation by -ere, ; e.g., dūcere, "to lead," ūtī, "to use"; of the fourth by -ī-re, -ī-rī; e.g., audīre, "to hear," experīrī, "to attempt". Irregular verbs may not follow these types, or may be marked in a different way. The "endings" presented above are not the suffixed infinitive markers. The first letter in each case is the last of the stem, because of which the conjugations are also called the a-conjugation, e-conjugation and i-conjugation. The fused infinitive ending is -re or -rī. Third-conjugation stems end in a consonant: the consonant conjugation. Further, there is a subset of the 3rd conjugation, the i-stems, which behave somewhat like the 4th conjugation, as they are both i-stems, one short and the other long. These stem categories descend from Indo-European, and can therefore be compared to similar conjugations in other Indo-European languages.

There are six general tenses in Latin (present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect), three moods (indicative, imperative and subjunctive, in addition to the infinitive, participle, gerund, gerundive and supine), three persons (first, second, and third), two numbers (singular and plural), two voices (active and passive), and three aspects (perfective, imperfective, and stative). Verbs are described by four principal parts:

  1. The first principal part is the first person singular, present tense, indicative mood, active voice form of the verb. If the verb is impersonal, the first principal part will be in the third person.
  1. The second principal part is the present infinitive active.
  1. The third principal part is the first person singular, perfect indicative active form.
  1. The fourth principal part is the supine form, or alternatively, the nominative singular, perfect passive participle form of the verb. The fourth principal part can show either one gender of the participle, or all three genders (-us for masculine, -a for feminine, and -um for neuter), in the nominative singular. The fourth principal part will be the future participle if the verb cannot be made passive. Most modern Latin dictionaries, if only showing one gender, tend to show the masculine; however, many older dictionaries will instead show the neuter, as this coincides with the supine. The fourth principal part is sometimes omitted for intransitive verbs, although strictly in Latin these can be made passive if used impersonally, and the supine exists for these verbs.

There are six tenses in the Latin language. These are divided into two tense systems: the present system, which is made up of the present, imperfect, and future tenses, and the perfect system, which is made up of the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses. Each tense has a set of endings corresponding to the person and number referred to. This means that subject (nominative) pronouns are generally unnecessary, unless emphasis on the subject is needed.

The table below displays the common inflected endings for the indicative mood in the active voice in all six tenses.

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