Natural sciences, Oceanography

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Natural sciences are the empirical sciences endeavoring to explain or predict nature's phenomena. (Other empirical sciences—cognitive sciences like artificial intelligence, behavioral sciences like psychology, and social sciences like economics—more directly focus on human and, in similitude, robotic functions and experiences.) There are five branches of natural science: astronomy, biology, chemistry, the Earth sciences and physics. Each domain collaborates experimental/observational and theoretical/mathematical divisions.


The serious study of oceans began in the early to mid-1900s. As a field of natural science, it is relatively young but stand-alone programs offer specializations in the subject. Though some controversies remain as to the categorization of the field under earth sciences, interdisciplinary sciences or as a separate field in its own right, most modern workers in the field agree that it has matured to a state that it has its own paradigms and practices. As such a big family of related studies spanning every aspect of the oceans is now classified under this field.

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  • WikipediaThe History of Recent Science and TechnologyNatural SciencesNatural SciencesNatural SciencesReviews of Books About Natural ScienceScientific Grant Awards DatabaseNatural Sciences Tripos

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