Rhine, End of the last ice age

From Vototo

Version ID# 2023 by 198.51.100.18
Press the "Improve" button to call for a new round of election and submit a challenging revision.
Jump to: navigation, search

Summary

The Rhine (; ; ; ; ) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Franco-German border, then flows through Germany and eventually empties into the North Sea in the Netherlands. It is the twelfth longest river in Europe, at about , with an average discharge .

Details

As northwest Europe slowly began to warm up from 22,000 years ago onward, frozen subsoil and expanded alpine glaciers began to thaw and fall-winter snow covers melted in spring. Much of the discharge was routed to the Rhine and its downstream extension. Rapid warming and changes of vegetation, to open forest, began about 13,000 BP. By 9000 BP, Europe was fully forested. With globally shrinking ice-cover, ocean water levels rose and the English Channel and North Sea re-inundated. Meltwater, adding to the ocean and land subsidence, drowned the former coasts of Europe transgressionally.

About 11000 yr ago, the Rhine estuary was in the Strait of Dover. There remained some dry land in the southern North Sea, connecting mainland Europe to Britain. About 9000 yr ago, that last divide was overtopped / dissected. These events were well within the residence of man.

Since 7500 yr ago, a situation with tides and currents, very similar to present has existed. Rates of sea-level rise had dropped so far, that natural sedimentation by the Rhine and coastal processes together, could compensate the transgression by the sea; in the last 7000 years, the coast line was roughly at the same location. In the southern North Sea, due to ongoing tectonic subsidence, the sea level is still rising, at the rate of about per century (1 metre or 39 inches in last 3000 years).

About 7000–5000 BP, a general warming encouraged migration up the Danube and down the Rhine, by peoples to the east, perhaps encouraged by the sudden massive expansion of the Black Sea, as the Mediterranean Sea burst into it through the Bosporus, about 7500 BP.

Copyright: Attribute—Share Alike

External Links

  • WikipediaRhine online water guide and mapBibliography on Water Resources and International LawThe *rei– rootBritain's drowned landscapes

Space reserved for Vototo Advertising Program

Content specific ad placement

Voicing the ONLY opinion that counts

System Design by Penpegraphy Tool+Die — Silicon Valley U.S.A.

Reserved for Vototo Advertising Program

(in planning)

Personal tools